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  1. Ancient Egypt collection
  2. The material world of ancient Egypt in SearchWorks catalog
  3. Ancient Egyptian technology
  4. Chapter: 8. History and Historiography in the Material World: Ancient Egyptian Perspectives

Craft Production in the Bronze Age. A comparative view from South Asia Shereen Ratnagar. An insight into the New Kingdom practices Karine Seigneau. The Nubian Mudbrick Vault.

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He has published extensively on the administration, socio-economic history, and landscape organization of ancient Egypt. He was previously a researcher with the Swiss National Science Foundation and the University of Basel, and a post-doctoral fellow at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Add to cart.

Ancient Egypt collection

Read online Read online. Sculpture Workshops: who, where and for whom? Abstract: This book provides an innovative analysis of the conditions of ancient Egyptian craftsmanship in the light of the archaeology of production, linguistic analysis, visual representation and ethnographic research. Contents Sculpture Workshops: who, where and for whom?

Show cart Help. It was understood that human beings were an important aspect of the creation of the gods and that each human soul was as eternal as that of the deities they revered. Death was not an end to life but a re-joining of the individual soul with the eternal realm from which it had come. According to the historian Margaret Bunson:. Eternity was an endless period of existence that was not to be feared by any Egyptian.

The hieroglyph for a corpse was translated as 'participating in eternal life'. The tomb was the 'Mansion of Eternity' and the dead was an Akh, a transformed spirit. As the Khat and the Ka were created at the same time, the Ka would be unable to journey to The Field of Reeds if it lacked the physical component on earth. The gods who had fashioned the soul and created the world consistently watched over the people of Egypt and heard and responded to, their petitions.

The material world of ancient Egypt in SearchWorks catalog

A famous example of this is when Ramesses II was surrounded by his enemies at the Battle of Kadesh BCE and, calling upon the god Amun for aid, found the strength to fight his way through to safety. There are many far less dramatic examples, however, recorded on temple walls, stele, and on papyrus fragments. Papyrus from which comes the English word 'paper' was only one of the technological advances of the ancient Egyptian culture.

The Egyptians were also responsible for developing the ramp and lever and geometry for purposes of construction, advances in mathematics and astronomy also used in construction as exemplified in the positions and locations of the pyramids and certain temples, such as Abu Simbel , improvements in irrigation and agriculture perhaps learned from the Mesopotamians , shipbuilding and aerodynamics possibly introduced by the Phoenicians the wheel brought to Egypt by the Hyksos and medicine. The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus c.

Dentistry was widely practised and the Egyptians are credited with inventing toothpaste, toothbrushes, the toothpick, and even breath mints. They created the sport of bowling and improved upon the brewing of beer as first practised in Mesopotamia. The Egyptians did not, however, invent beer. Glassworking, metallurgy in both bronze and gold , and furniture were other advancements of the culture and Egyptian art and architecture are famous world-wide for precision and beauty.

Ancient Egyptian technology

Personal hygiene and appearance was valued highly, and the Egyptians bathed regularly, scented themselves with perfume and incense, and created cosmetics used by both men and women. The practice of shaving was invented by the Egyptians as was the wig and the hairbrush.

By BCE the water clock was in use in Egypt, as was the calendar. Some have even suggested that they understood the principle of electricity as evidenced in the famous Dendera Light engraving on the wall of the Hathor Temple at Dendera. The images on the wall have been interpreted by some to represent a light bulb and figures attaching said bulb to an energy source.

This interpretation, however, has been largely discredited by the academic community. In daily life, the Egyptians seem little different from other ancient cultures. Like the people of Mesopotamia, India , China , and Greece, they lived, mostly, in modest homes, raised families, and enjoyed their leisure time.

A significant difference between Egyptian culture and that of other lands, however, was that the Egyptians believed the land was intimately tied to their personal salvation and they had a deep fear of dying beyond the borders of Egypt. Those who served their country in the army, or those who traveled for their living, made provision for their bodies to be returned to Egypt should they be killed. It was thought that the fertile, dark earth of the Nile River Delta was the only area sanctified by the gods for the rebirth of the soul in the afterlife and to be buried anywhere else was to be condemned to non-existence.

Because of this devotion to the homeland, Egyptians were not great world-travelers, and there is no 'Egyptian Herodotus ' to leave behind impressions of the ancient world beyond Egyptian borders. Even in negotiations and treaties with other countries, Egyptian preference for remaining in Egypt was dominant.

The historian Nardo writes,. Though Amenophis III had joyfully added two Mitanni princesses to his harem, he refused to send an Egyptian princess to the sovereign of Mitanni, because, 'from time immemorial a royal daughter from Egypt has been given to no one. Further, within the confines of the country people did not travel far from their places of birth and most, except for times of war , famine, or other upheaval, lived their lives and died in the same locale.

This being so, Egyptians were encouraged to rejoice in and deeply appreciate their immediate surroundings and to live gratefully within their means. Among the lower classes, homes were built of mud bricks baked in the sun.

Chapter: 8. History and Historiography in the Material World: Ancient Egyptian Perspectives

Wood was scarce and was only used for doorways and window sills again, in wealthier homes and the roof was considered another room in the house where gatherings were routinely held as the interior of the homes were often dimly lighted. Clothing was simple linen, undyed, with the men wearing a knee-length skirt or loincloth and the women light, ankle-length dresses or robes which concealed or exposed their breasts depending on the fashion at a particular time. Dancing girls, female musicians, and servants and slaves are routinely shown as naked or nearly naked while a lady of the house is fully clothed, even during those times when exposed breasts were a fashion statement.

Even so, women were free to dress as they pleased, and there was never a prohibition, at any time in Egyptian history, on female fashion. Children wore little or no clothing until puberty. Marriages were not arranged among the lower classes and there seems to have been no formal marriage ceremony.

A man would carry gifts to the house of his intended bride and, if the gifts were accepted, she would take up residence with him.


The average age of a bride was 13 and that of a groom Egyptian women could own land, homes, run businesses, and preside over temples and could even be pharaohs as in the example of Queen Hatshepsut , BCE or, earlier, Queen Sobeknofru, c. The historian Thompson writes, "Egypt treated its women better than any of the other major civilizations of the ancient world.

The Egyptians believed that joy and happiness were legitimate goals of life and regarded home and family as the major source of delight. While the man was considered the head of the house, the woman was head of the home. Girls remained under the care of their mothers, learning how to run a household, until they were married. Women could also be scribes, priests, or doctors, but this was unusual because education was expensive and tradition held that the son should follow the father's profession, not the daughter.

Marriage was the common state of Egyptians after puberty, and a single man or woman was considered abnormal. The higher classes, or nobility, lived in more ornate homes with greater material wealth but seem to have followed the same precepts as those lower on the social hierarchy.

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All Egyptians enjoyed playing games, such as the game of senet a board game popular since the Predynastic Period in Egypt , c. This did not seem to stop poorer people from playing the game, however; they merely played with a less ornate set. Watching wrestling matches and races and engaging in other sporting events, such as hunting, archery, and sailing, were popular among the nobility and upper class but, again, were enjoyed by all Egyptians in as much as they could be afforded save for large animal hunting which was the sole provenance of the ruler and those he designated.

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  5. Feasting at banquets was a leisure activity only of the upper class although the lower classes were able to enjoy themselves in a similar though less lavish way at the many religious festivals held throughout the year. Swimming and rowing were extremely popular among all classes. The people embark on small boats, two to a boat, and one rows while the other bails out water. Then they are violently tossed about in the raging rapids. At length, they reach the narrowest channels…and, swept along by the whole force of the river, they control the rushing boat by hand and plunge head downward to the great terror of the onlookers.

    You would believe sorrowfully that by now they were drowned and overwhelmed by such a mass of water when, far from the place where they fell, they shoot out as from a catapult, still sailing, and the subsiding wave does not submerge them, but carries them on to smooth waters. Nardo, Swimming was an important part of Egyptian culture, and children were taught to swim when very young.

    Water sports played a significant role in Egyptian entertainment as the Nile River was such a major aspect of their daily lives. The sport of water- jousting , in which two small boats, each with one or two rowers and one jouster, fought each other, seems to have been very popular.